Monday, July 22, 2024
HomeNepalExploring Nepal's Rich Religious Heritage: A Guide to its Temples and Monasteries

Exploring Nepal’s Rich Religious Heritage: A Guide to its Temples and Monasteries

Contents show

Nepal is a multicultural nation renowned throughout the land as the abode of Mt Everest and the birthplace of Lord Buddha. An intricate garland of various castes and ethnicity, ruled by several dynasties over centuries, have left behind their eloquent culture and architecture, resonating a flair to humankind. Be it a stone carving, architectural buildings, inscriptions on walls, prayer flags or other artistic assimilations, Nepal harbours a profound source of entities presenting the luring desirability to a mass volume of people all over the world. The wonderland is full of brilliant landmarks expressing natural, cultural, religious and architectural heritages and the Religious Diversity in the Himalayan domain.

Your Journey to Nepal is incomplete without visiting the historical town of Kathmandu, the capital city. The nation has a total of 10 World Heritage sites enlisted in the UNESCO Heritage, where seven of them are already situated in Kathmandu, also known as the city of Temples. These sites include Temples, National Parks, and other architecturally significant monuments that express a complete introspection into the profound art, culture, history, and tradition passed down along the centuries.

Heritages are the essential elements deemed to express one’s identity and belonging to the region. They can be in numerous shapes and physical forms, from Temples, shrines, historical monuments, arts and crafts or spiritual spaces. Nepal is a fusion of abstract religious diversities with its unique mysticism and awe-inspiring landmarks that will confidently imprint an indelible stain in your heart and mind.

Let us explore these premises and uncover the secrets of detailed Cultural Heritages humming in this blissful land. Here is a list of some religious sites you should consider checking out during your venture in Nepal.

Hinduism in Nepal: Temples and Sites to Visit

1. Pashupatinath Temple

Pashupatinath Temple

One of the most sacred Hindu Temples in the world, Pashupatinath is a centuries-old structure located 6 kilometres in the eastern segment of Kathmandu Valley. The site is a summation of ancient ashrams, temples, sculptures and images preserved over the millennium. Amidst this heritage site lies the holy Bagmati river flowing elegantly, which holds significance as one of Nepal’s oldest Hindu cremation sites.

Significant Highlights of Pashupatinath Temple

  • It is one of the oldest Hindu shrines exhibiting a solitary dedication to Lord Shiva.
  • The place is a major homage and sanctuary for Hindu ascetics (Sadhus).
  • One can observe the Hindu Cremation ritual and sites in the Arya Ghat located on the bank of the holy Bagmati.
  • Every evening, a puja ceremony and Bhajan Kirtan are held on the banks of the river, offering an exceptional spiritual experience. 

History and Significance

Pashupatinath Temple dates back to the 5th century and is one of the oldest temples in Nepal. It is believed to be a place of worship for the Hindu deity Lord Shive, who is considered the destroyer and regenerator of the universe. The temple has witnessed numerous renovations over the years and was recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979.

Architecture and Design

The temple’s architecture blends Nepalese and Indian styles with golden pagoda-style roofs, intricately carved wooden rafters, and stunning stone sculptures. The temple complex has four main entrances and covers a vast area of 246 hectares. It is surrounded by a series of smaller temples and shrines, reflecting Nepal’s religious and cultural diversity.

Festivals and Events

Pashupatinath Temple hosts several festivals throughout the year, drawing thousands of devotees from all over the world. Maha Shivaratri, celebrated in February or March, is the most significant festival at the temple.

It is believed that Lord Shiva married Goddess Parvati on this day, and devotees gather in large numbers to offer prayers and seek blessings. Other festivals like Teej, Bala Chaturdashi, and Hatitalika are also celebrated with great enthusiasm at the temple.  

Reaching Pashupatinath Temple

The UNESCO heritage site is located just a few kilometres from Tribhuvan International Airport. Several easily accessible buses will take you to the Southern gates of the Temple periphery. The Temple is located in Gaushala, Kathmandu, Nepal.

2. Swayambhunath Stupa: A Symbol of Spirituality in Kathmandu

Swayambhunath Stupa

Swayambhunath Stupa, also known as the Monkey Temple, is a prominent Buddhist temple in Kathmandu’s heart. This ancient shrine stands atop a hill overlooking the city and is a revered site for Buddhists and Hindus alike; here’s a closer look at the historic architecture and festivals associated with the Swayambhunath Stupa.

History and Significance

Swaymbhunath is a complex consisting of various temples, shrines and a stupa dating back from the Licchavi period. Residing on a hilltop in the west of Kathmandu city, Swayambhu is the most sacred fractioning ground among the Buddhist pilgrimage sites and second to Tibetan Buddhism. Similar to Boudhanth, the shrine consists of Buddha’s eyes overlooking all of Kathmandu valley.

Believed to be around 2500 years old, the compound represents the elements that form this universe, i.e., fire, earth, water and wind. Travelling to Swayambhunath is a serene experience, filled with the aromatic smell of burning incense and old carvings glued in each square inch of the space. The way to reach this Stupa is via an up-route stairway consisting of 365 steps, rewarding you with a panoramic view of the entire city.

ALSO READ :  Bratabandha Ceremony in Nepal - What is it and How it is Celebrated?

Architecture and Design

The stupa’s architecture uniquely blends Hindu and Buddhist styles, with a white dome-shaped structure topped with a gold-coloured spire. The temple’s base is surrounded by hundreds of prayer wheels, and coloured prayer flags adorn the temple’s entrance. The stupa’s eyes painted on all four sides symbolize wisdom and compassion, and the 13-tiered spire represents the path to enlightenment.

Festivals and Events

Swayambhunath Stupa hosts several festivals throughout the year, drawing in devotees from all over the world. Buddha Jayanti, celebrated in May, is the most significant festival at the temple, marking the birth, enlightenment, and death of the Buddha.

The festival is celebrated with prayer, meditation, and the lighting of butter lamps. Other festivals like Losar, the Tibetan New Year, and the Kathmandu Valley’s harvest festival, Indra Jatra, are also celebrated with great enthusiasm at the temple.

Major Highlights of Swayambhunath Stupa

  • Offers 360-degree angle of the Kathmandu valley from the temple top grounds.
  • An opportunity to witness locals worshipping at the shrines and religious harmony between Hindus and Buddhists.
  • The central section is filled with decorations enriched in Buddhist symbolism, chaityas, religious relics and painted deities.
  • Swayambhunath is famously called the Monkey Temple, as hundreds of monkeys can be observed lurking around the Stupa in its periphery.

How to get to Swayambhunath Stupa

You can reach Swayambhunath on foot or simply book a cab to get there quickly. Walking from the heart of Kathmandu, Thamel will take approximately about half an hour to acquire to this enclosure. The narrow streets of Kathmandu are packed with multireligious sites, which serve as an excellent ice-breaker to diminish boredom throughout your journey. 

3. Ram Janaki Temple

Ram Janaki Temple

Located in the southern part of Nepal, Janaki Temple is one of the holiest places of Hindus. Given the identity of its Shikhar style design, Ram Janaki Temple is composed of numerous Mithila art and images, believed to have been constructed by the Queen Brishbhanu Kumari of Tikamgadh.

Built on 28 Magh, 1967, Janaki Temple acclaimed its name as ‘Naulakha Mandir’ since the cost incurred during its construction amounts to nine hundred thousand NPR. The city exhibits the religious dedication to Goddess Sita, wife of Lord Ram. It incorporates a large temple with beautiful lattice windows and turrets, making it one of the most picturesque temples in Nepal.

History and Significance

The temple’s history dates back to the ancient Hindu epic “Ramayana,” which tells the story of Lord Rama and his wife, Sita. According to the legend, Sita was born in Janakpur, and the temple was built on the spot where she married Lord Rama. The temple is therefore considered a holy site for Hindus, who come from far and wide to pay their respects to the goddess.

Architecture and Design

The temple’s architecture is a fine example of Nepalese art and design, characterized by intricate carvings and ornate details.

The temple is made of white marble and has 60 rooms, each with a unique design and purpose. The main shrine, where the statue of Sita is kept, is surrounded by smaller shrines dedicated to other deities.

Festivals and Events

Janaki Mandir is also known for its vibrant festivals and events, which draw large crowds of devotees and tourists. The most famous of these is the Janaki Navami festival, which celebrates the wedding of Lord Rama and Sita.

During this festival, the temple is decorated with lights and flowers, processions, music, and dancing throughout the city.

Major Highlights of Janaki Temple

  • Welcomes thousands of pilgrimages from Nepal, Sri Lanka, India and other countries every year.
  • The best time to visit the Temple lies during the auspicious festivals of Vivaha Panchami, Ram Nawami, Dashain and Tihar.
  • The most prominent sites to visit here are Ram Janaki Biwaha Mandap, Ram Mandir, Raj Devi Mandir and Lakshman Mandir.

How to Get to Ram Janaki Temple

Janakpur is located in the Dhanusha District of Janakpur Zone, about 390 km away from Kathmandu. This hotspot can be accessed via a flight to Janakpur, which will take around 20 to 30 minutes.

At the same time, over landing ride from Kathmandu will take you through the mesmeric landscapes of Nepal within 10 hours to complete the journey.

Buddhism in Nepal – Monasteries and Sites to Visit:

1. Lumbini – Lord Buddha’s Birth Place


A renowned spiritual teacher, administrator and influencer, Gautam Buddha, whose real name is Siddhartha Gautam, was born in Lumbini, Nepal. Lumbini, located in the southern Terai plains of Nepal, is one of the most sacred sites in the world for Buddhists.

It is believed to be the birthplace of Lord Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. The place is a symbol of peace and harmony and attracts thousands of visitors from all over the world.

History and Significance

The history and significance of Lumbini can be traced back to 623 BC when Queen Maya Devi gave birth to Prince Siddhartha, who later became Gautam Buddha, while on her way to her maternal home in Devadaha. The place remained hidden until the mid-19th century when a German archaeologist discovered the site. It was later declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997.

Lumbini is one of the most magnificent religious sites for Buddhist pilgrimage and consists of numerous temples funded and constructed by several Buddhist organizations.

Enlisted as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997, Lumbini has a tranquil aesthetics filled with architectural wonders, monuments, museums, monasteries and temples.

Architectures and Designs

The architecture and design of Lumbini reflect the ancient Buddhist culture and heritage. The site is spread over an area of 2.56 square kilometres and contains various monuments, temples, and monasteries built by different countries in their unique styles.

The most significant monument is the Maya Devi Temple, which marks the exact spot where Lord Buddha was born. The temple consists of a sacred pool and a holy shrine, surrounded by a brick structure.

The Ashoka Pillar, which dates back to 249 BC, is another crucial monument that stands tall at the entrance of the sacred zone.

Festivals and Events

Lumbini is a hub of various festivals and events that attract tourists from all over the world. The most significant festival celebrated here is Buddha Jayanti, which marks the birth anniversary of Lord Buddha.

The festival is celebrated on the full moon day of May, and the entire area is located with colourful flags and lighting. Other festivals like Dipawali, Holi, and Christmas are also celebrated with great enthusiasm.

Major Highlights of Lumbini

  • A historical monument, the Ashoka Pillar, built by the renowned architect Emperor Ashoka lies in the inner sanction of the garden, where an inscription confirms the birth of Lord Buddha.
  • Maya Devi Temple, a white temple located near the Maya Devi Pond, has been proven by archaeological analysis depicting the birthplace of Lord Buddha.
  • Several completed and under-construction monasteries, including Lumbini Crane Sanctuary, monasteries and Pagoda for World Peace, can be witnessed.
  • Eternal flame, Pagoda-styled buildings and artificial water lanes for boat rides are the introductory recreational designations of the area.

How to get to Lumbini

Travelling via roadways or airways carries its perks on reaching this spiritual land. An overland trip to Lumbini from Kathmandu will take almost 8 to 9 hours’ drive while visitors are given the free accessibility of Private and Tourist vehicle arrangements.

ALSO READ :  List of Gotra And Thari in Nepal

The most convenient way is via a 35 minutes plane ride to Bhairahawa Airport and then embark on a land ride estimated to take about half an hour to reach Lumbini.

2. Boudhanatha Stupa

Boudhanatha Stupa

Boudhanath Stupa, also known as the Boudha Stupa, is one of the most famous Buddhist stupas in the world, located in the bustling city of Kathmandu, Nepal.

The stupa’s imposing size and unique designs make it a popular destination for tourists and pilgrims alike, and it is considered a UNESCO World Heritage site.

History and Significance

Boudhanath is one of the ancient and the largest spherical-shaped monastery founded by King Songtsen Gompa of Tibet in 600 AD.

The three eyes of Buddha act as a metaphysical reminder of Buddha’s journey to spiritual enlightenment. This unique three-level mandala-style structure is 36 meters high and welcomes flocks of Buddhist followers in festivities with its strikingly similar feature to that of Swayambhunath Stupa.

Architecture and Design

This symbolic Stupa is mathematically proportionate with a whitewashed dome and a glided tower with the Buddha’s all-seeing eyes.

The stupa is decorated with colourful prayer flags, prayer wheels, and small shrines dedicated to various Buddhist deities. At the base of the Stupa are shops selling traditional Buddhist items such as prayer beads and incense.

Festivals and Activities

Boudhanath Stupa is also known for its lively festivals and events, which draw large crowds of visitors. The most famous is the Buddha Jayanti festival, celebrated with colourful lights, flowers and musical concerts throughout the city.

Significant Highlights of Boudhanath Stupa

  • The Stupa has 108 mini-images of Dhyani Buddha Amitabh and a ring of Prayer wheels in the outer-base section.
  • It is an excellent place to observe and interact with local pilgrimages.
  • One can check out several worth-visiting art galleries, cafes, Buddhist monasteries and souvenir shops in the periphery surrounding the Stupa.
  • One of the largest of its kind, A ‘Mandala’ rests in the base of the Stupa.

Getting to Boudhanath Stupa

Suppose you are in the capital city of Nepal, Kathmandu. In that case, you can grab a taxi from various locations such as Sundhara, Ratna Park and Gongabu and steer directly to this magnificent spot. Buses leave at every few minute intervals to Bouddha and will drop you at the entrance of the Stupa.

3. Kopan Monastery

 Kopan Monastery

Nestled in the foothills of the Himalayas, Kopan Monastery is a spiritual haven that attracts visitors from all over the world. The monastery is perched on a hilltop in the Kathmandu Valley, overlooking the city of Boudha.

Established in 1970, Kopan Monastery has become an important centre for studying and practising Tibetan Buddhism.

History and Significance

The history of Kopan Monastery dates back to the 1960s when two lamas named Lama Yeshe and Lama Zopa Rinpoche arrived in Nepal.

They were both disciples of the renowned Tibetan Buddhist master, Lama Thubten Yeshe and were searching for a suitable place to establish a monastery. Eventually, they discovered the land on which Kopan Monastery now stands and began construction.

Architecture and Design

The monastery’s architecture blends traditional Tibetan and Nepalese styles, with vibrant colours and intricate designs adorning the walls and roofs.

The main prayer hall features a stunning statue of the Buddha, as well as several thangkas and other Buddhist artworks. The entire complex is surrounded by lush gardens and provides a retreat for visitors.

Festivals and Events

Kopan Monastery hosts several festivals and events throughout the year, including Losar (Tibetan New Year), Chotrul Duchen (the Festival of Miracles), and Saga Dawa (the Month of Merit).

In addition to festivals, Kopan Monastery also offers several courses and retreats for those interested in learning more about Tibetan Buddhism. These programs cover a wide range of topics, including meditation, philosophy and the Tibetan language.

Other Religious Sites and Shrines in Nepal

1. Changu Narayan Temple

 Changu Narayan Temple

Snuggled atop a lush green hill, the Changu Narayan Temple is one of Nepal’s most ancient and revered religious sites. This majestic temple boasts a rich cultural and historical legacy that dates back over 1,500 years, making it a must-visit destination for anyone interested in exploring the county’s spiritual and architectural heritage.

History and Significance

The Changu Narayan Temple is dedicated to Lord Vishnu, one of the principal deities of Hinduism. Legend has it that the temple was built by the Licchavi king Mandev, a devout worshipper of Lord Vishnu.

Over the centuries, the temple has been damaged by natural calamities such as earthquakes, but it has always been restored to its former glory by successive rulers.

Architecture and Design

The temple’s architecture is a stunning blend of ancient Newaru and Hindu Styles. The complex features intricated wood and stone carvings, ornate metalwork, and beautifully crafted statues of gods and goddesses.

The temple’s main shrine is a magnificent two-story structure adorned with exquisite carvings that depict the various avatars of Lord Vishnu.

Festivals and Events

The Changu Narayan Temple is a hub of religious activity, with a range of festivals and events drawing visitors from far and wide.

One of the most popular festivals is the Changu Narayan Jatra, which is held every year in April or May. The festival features lively processions, traditional music and dance performances, and colourful displays of local handicrafts.

2. Dakshinkali Temple

Dakshinkali Temple

With a rich history and fascinating architecture, Dakshinkali Temple is a must-visit historic temple nestled in the lush green hills of the Kathmandu Valley.

History and Significance

The Dakshinkali Temple has a long and fascinating history that dates back to the 17th century. Legend has it that the temple was built by King Pratap Malla of the Malla dynasty in 1674 after he had a vision of the goddess Kali.

According to the story, the goddess appeared to the king in a dream and told him to build the temple in her honour at the site where local villagers worshipped her.

The king followed the goddess’s instructions and built the temple, which soon became a popular pilgrimage site for devotees from all over Nepal.

Architecture and Design

The Dakshinkalu Temple is dedicated to the goddess Kali,  a fierce and powerful deity in Hindu mythology. The temple’s architecture and design reflect the goddess’s tempestuous nature, with its dark, foreboding exterior and intricately carved wooden doors.

Inside the temple, visitors will find a giant statue of the goddess adorned with garlands of flowers and offerings of fruit and sweets. The temple also features a sacred pond where devotees can perform ritual ablutions before entering the main shrine. 

Festivals and Events

One of the most significant events at the Dakshinkali Temple is the annual Dashain festival, which takes place in the months of September and October. During this festival, thousands of devotees flock to the temple to offer sacrifices to the goddess Kali.

The sacrifices typically involve the slaughter of animals such as goats, buffaloes, and chickens, which are then presented to the goddess In exchange for her blessings. The festival is a vibrant and colourful affair, with the air filled with the sounds of drums and bells and the scent of incense and flowers.

Another important festival at the Dakshinkali Temple is the Navaratri festival, which takes place in September and October. During this festival, devotees worship the nine forms of the goddess Durga, of which Kali is one.

ALSO READ :  Paragliding in Nepal

3. Manakamana Temple

Manakamana Temple

Nepal is a country steeped in rich religious heritage and is home to numerous ancient temples and shrines. One such temple is the Manakamana Temple, a popular pilgrimage site for Hindus that sits perched atop a hill in the Gorkha district of Nepal.

Let’s take a closer look at this fascinating temple’s history, significance and architecture. 

History and Significance

The Manakamana Temple has a long and storied history that dates back to the 17th century. According to legend, the temple was built by a devout devotee who was blessed with the vision of the goddess Bhagwati, who instructed him to build a temple in her honour.

The devotee followed the goddess’s instructions and built the temple, which soon became a popular pilgrimage site for devotees from all over Nepal.

Architecture and design

The Manakamana Temple is dedicated to the goddess Bhagwati, who is believed to be an incarnation of the Hindu goddess Parvati.

The temple’s architecture and design reflect the goddesses’ regal and robust nature, with its intricate carvings and imposing stricture. The temple is constructed primarily of stone and is adorned with ornate carvings of the goddess and other deities.

Festival and Events

One of the significant events at the Manakamana Temple is the annual festival of Navaratri, which takes place in the months of September and October.

During this festival, devotees worship the nine forms of the goddess Durga, of which Bhagwati is one. Colourful processions, dance performances and the lighting of traditional oil lamps mark the festival.

4. Pathivara Temple

Bearing a testament to human will and spiritual devotion, Pathivara temple is an important religious place in the North-Eastern outskirts of Taplejung district, Nepal. The thrilling journey to reach this location comes with its perks and difficulties.

The region lies in the Kanchenjunga Conservation area, where visitors will feel the reconnection with mother nature’s sheer elements.

Booming with diverse flora and fauna, the animist deity of Pathivara is revered and worshipped by Hindus as well as Buddhists. Considered one of the Shakti Peeths, Pathivara Temple is believed to fulfil the wishes of their devotees upon overcoming adversities such as health and prosperity.

Major significance of Pathivara Temple

  • Apart from its religious vigour, the place is a picturesque heaven to view Kanchenjunga and its following ranges.
  • Fibbing at an altitude of 12,444 feet, the region is rich with numerous flora and fauna, and the journey to reach here is challenging and awe-inspiring.
  • It is an exceptional destination and excursion option for trekkers worldwide, filled with diverse wildlife, bird life, flowers and butterflies.

How to get to Pathivara Temple

There are multiple ways to reach this mystical region of Nepal. Travelling via land will take multiple days, and overnight stay is mandatory. A bus ride journey from Kathmandu to the eastern province of Jhapa district will take over 12 to 16 hours.

Upon arriving in Jhapa, you will intersect the northern route from Charali. Buses and jeeps comparatively run in this region, making transportation accessible to the Himalayan province.

The Roadway from Jhapa to Taplejung is filled with awe-inspiring beauties of hilly and mountain ranges, the conspicuously gorgeous Illam’s Tea Garden landscape and naturally sprouted waterfalls.

It is highly recommended to visit and take at least a half-day excursion in Illam since the region is enriched with its unique taste, culture, cordial locals, natural aesthetics, tea and herbs.

You will reach Phungling Bazar, the bustling town of Taplejung, in an estimated 6 to 8 hours. The journey to Pathivara begins from Suketar, which is about 2 hours walk from Phungling.

 Suketar airport is also located there, making it the only airport in the Taplejung district. One can hike from Suketar, which will take around 8 to 10 hours to reach Pathivara as you pass through Deurali, Chhatedunga, Bhalugauda and Phedi.

Another alternative route to reach within a short time is via plane from Kathmandu to Bhadrapur Airport, located in Jhapa. One can take a flight from Jhapa to Suketar Airport on the same day, shortening two days’ worth of time.

Tips for Visiting Religious Sites in Nepal

Religious Sites in Nepal

As a visitor to the religious site of Nepal, it is essential to be mindful of various safety considerations to make the most of your trip. Here are some tips:

1. Respectful Behavior and Etiquette

– Dress Code and Behavior Guidelines

Dressing modestly and respectfully when visiting religious sites in Nepal is crucial. Shorts, short skirts, and tank tops are inappropriate; removing your shoes is essential before entering the temple or shrine. Be sure to speak quietly and refrain from any disruptive behaviour. 

– Photography and Video Restrictions

Some religious sites in Nepal have restrictions on photography and video. Always ask permission before taking pictures, and never take photos of people without their consent. Avoid using flash photography or making loud noises that might disturb others.

– Proper Disposal of Offerings and Waste

Many visitors offer flowers, incense, and other offerings at religious sites in Nepal. It’s essential to dispose of these offerings properly. Never throw them on the ground or in the water. Instead, look for designated disposal areas or ask a temple attendant for guidance.

2. Safety and Security Considerations

– Avoiding Scams and Pickpockets

Unfortunately, scams and pickpocketing can occur in crowded areas like religious sites. Always be aware of your surroundings, and keep your valuables close to you. Be wary of anyone who tries to sell you souvenirs or asks for money.

– Carrying a Phone and Emergency Detail Contact

Always keep your phone charged, and have emergency contact details of your embassy or consulate on hand in case of an emergency.

– Staying in Well populated Area

Stick to well-populated areas and avoid walking alone at night. Stay in well-lit areas and be cautious when taking taxis or public transportation.

3. Transportation and Logistics

– Travel Options and Routes

There are many ways to get to religious sites in Nepal, including public transportation, taxis, and private cars. Do your research ahead of time to determine the best route and mode of transportation for your needs.

– Accommodation Options and Recommendations

Many religious sites have nearby accommodations, including guesthouses and hotels. Consider staying in these areas to make the most of your visit. Look for accommodations with good reviews and a convenient location.

– Tour and Guide Options

Hiring a tour guide can be a great way to learn more about the history and significance of religious sites in Nepal. Look for reputable tour companies and guides with good reviews.


Renowned for its cultural history, Nepal is a land of peace where religion and spirituality are an everyday part of life for the people. Numerous sacrosanct practices are performed in this land, making it an enthralling zone for cultural discovery, study and analysis. Besides the places mentioned above, Nepal has a plethora of other religious heritage sites, such as Muktinath, Gosaikunda, Larumba, Jame Masque, etc. Despite the differences, we are bound by similar virtues, and preserving this heritage is our foremost responsibility and duty.

- Advertisment -


- Advertisment -